The Historical Development of Milling Technologies and Modern Technologies
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The Historical Development of Milling Technologies and Modern Technologies

The Historical Development of Milling Technologies and Modern Technologies 8.6.2016

INTRODUCTION

Milling involves all machines employed in milling granular products from minerals to metal and wood. Our subject is granular products which includes grains and within that wheat and flour milling.

Flour milling refers to the segment of industry in which wheat granules are reduced to flour. This process is almost as old as the history of humanity. It is said that it reaches as far as 75.000 BC.  Archeological evidence proves that milling stones were used 18 thousand years before as well. With respect to industry, today exist stone and roller mills. The very “first factories” with steam machines and the “first automation” with vertical and horizontal systems were implemented in flour milling industry. It is because of this reason that old English language uses the word “mill” for factory and “miller” for referring to manufacturer.

 The importance of flour milling results from the widespread distribution of the wheat from which flour is produced, the ability to grow wheat in large geographies and ecologies, its easy agriculture, preservation and processing, and its nutritional affordability, accessibility and neutral aromatic profile as a foodstuff. With respect to our country, flour mills produce raw materials for a wide range of grain based products; primarily for bread. Dominated by a grain-based diet, Turkey has 150 kg annual flour consumption per capita. From the field to the consumer, milling adds value to the economy by creating important accession in fields of manufacture and service and providing commerce and export opportunities.

Different than Far East, South America and Africa, flour milling is the main industry field of European and Asian countries. Similarly, Turkey is also one of the Eurasian countries where flour milling is very widespread. However, countries where nutrition is mostly based on rice and corn also tend to conduct flour milling since wheat is a widespread, easy and cheaply manufactured grain.

THE POSITION OF FLOUR MILLING IN TURKEY AND IN THE WORLD

The following developments are observed in consideration of the flour milling in the world:

1.    Corresponding to the production of wheat, one of the basic consumable items; the manufacturing of milling machines rapidly increase as well. Countries such as America, Germany, Italy, France and England are great milling machine manufacturers. Turkey, on the other hand has greatly advanced in this field in recent years.  
2.    There is a quickly increasing interest in the compact mills offered for flour milling. These 50-100 ton capacity, single-layer, fully automated and PLC-controlled mills manufactured are especially better suited for multipurpose milling concept. These mills are not much suitable for the conditions of our country. The mills with less than a 100 ton/day capacity are not economical.

3.    In recent years, capacities less than 250 tons are prohibited in the countries that dominate the milling sector. The milling sector gathers around 5 to 10 major companies in the advanced countries. Capacities less than 250 tons increase the cost whereas higher capacities disrupt the milling circulation. 

4.    Another trend in flour milling is specialization milling and multipurpose milling. In specialization milling, the mill is designed for a single product. For example, bread flour, biscuit flour, flour, etc. In Turkey, specialization milling is more popular than multipurpose milling. 

5.    In multipurpose milling, different types of wheat and grains are milled and stored separately. At the end of the milling process, 50-60 types of flour can be achieved by blending these flours and adding additives. The added value of this application is rather high just like the investment costs, information, personnel and technology requirements. 

6.    Flour milling is one of the basic industrial fields of our country. Depending on the developments in this field, in Ottoman period as well, stone and roller mills were imported and brought into use in a very short time. Today, there are more than 1000 mills (both active and passive) over 50 tones capacity daily. 700-800 of these are active. The established capacity is 30 million tons annually whereas used capacity is 10-13 million tons a year. Flour milling is also subject to a high rate of excess capacity. Thereby, milling machines with a significant production capacity almost have no domestic activity. Thus the industry compulsorily relies on foreign countries.

7.    Flour milling in Turkey is based on bread flour. In recent years, luxurious flours and packaged flours which are small in number have increasingly become popular. There are great differences in terms of capacity. There are mills that operate in capacities which vary between 10 to 600 tons daily. Only the %35 of the establish capacity is being used whereas the %65 constitutes the excess capacity. This causes extreme deviations in flour prices. Small mills spend 15 KW electricity for milling 100 kg of wheat on average whereas in 250-350 ton capacity mills that value can be decreased to 4-5 KW. Besides, employment cost and general expenses per unit manufacture are lower in larger mills.

8.    Flour industry concentrates in the areas of Konya, Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Gaziantep. With respect to regional dispersion, half of the industry is located in inner Anatolia and Marmara.


MILLING TECHNOLOGY AND FLOUR MILL

From an engineering viewpoint, milling is a process of size reduction. Mills employed in the milling process are the components that provide for pressing, impact, cutting and friction techniques and dimension minimization. Even though the term “mill” is used for all of the mills in general, it suggests flour mills in the technical term. The technical definition of mill in flour milling is the cracking of the cleaned and conditioned wheat grain, the separation of the mealy endosperm from the bran and its reduction to flour. 

A flour mill consists of wheat storages, cleaning and conditioning units and granulation part. The milling system of mills is composed of mills, sieves and auxiliary components.

The milling process is the integration of pressure and tension originating from the implemented milling force. This energy which is applied on to a grain comminutes it by the effect of these forces. A part of the energy disperses on the breaking surfaces heating up the milling material. The more increased the applied energy, the more increases “milling efficacy” in other words grain fineness.

The milling efficacy can be estimated by the average granule fineness of the milling material. The effect of the processes of comminution and friction causes milling passage to heat. The milling passages should remain under a certain level. Different than the process itself, the Milling Quality can be estimated from the bran and endosperm seperation. After the sieving of the material in the milling passage, this qualitative superiority can be determined from the fineness and the purity of the material under the sieve. The milling efficacy is dependant on the milling surface as well as the material, pace and surface features of roller balls.

The second important component is the sieves utilized within the sieving system. Sieves classify the broken material depending on its fineness and achieving a critical purification process separates the breaking passage into sub-passages such as raw materials over the sieve, semolina and flour. In other words, by enabling the dispersion of these, sieves contribute to the success of advanced process levels. In sieving systems, “sieving efficacy” can be estimated by the under sieve amount and the purity level of the material demanded. The purity level of the milled or sieved material on the other hand is determined by its peak, color and ash amount which are determined by organoleptic and laboratory tests.

MILLING FEATURES OF STONE MILL

Consisting of a moving stone on a fixed one, stone mills are utilized for breaking the wheat between two stones and separating the bran and the endosperm from each other as much as possible. In stone milling, superficial milling is applied by the wide stone surfaces. The specific milling features of stone mills are summarized below:

•    It can provide 100 % performance with single degree and superficial milling.
•    The heat increases due to extreme friction and high pressure in single degree milling. Therefore, obtained breakage or flour might be burned. 
•    The gelatinization capacity of starch and gas keeping capacity of gluten is damaged.
•    The starch damage is increased in stone mills.
•    Due to the crumbling of sandstone, fine sand particles are transferred into the flour in stone mills.
•    The capacity as well as flour yield and quality is lower in stone mills
•    The obtained flour consists of rough gains with high possibility of bran transmission.
•    The energy consumption is high in stone mills.

Figure 1 depicts the operating mechanism of a water-fuelled stone mill.


Figure1. The milling mechanism in stone mills

Industrially, the first developments in milling technology were obtained on stone mills and roller mills have accelerated this process. However, no recent technology was set forth after that. The mentioned development phases occurred exactly as follows.

 

MILLING PREPERATION TECHNOLOGIES IN FLOUR MILLING

A. Supply of raw material, Quality Control and Maintaining
The main raw material of flour milling is Tr. Aestivum bread wheat types of hexaploid character. In addition, Tr compactum and for special purposes Tr durum types can also be used. The purposive quality and peak flour production starts with the appropriate choice and supply of the raw material and laboratory analyze tests. A well-equipped and organized laboratory is a very critical part of blending as well as all production phases. It is one of the essential disciplines of international wheat market and flour milling for the implementations of raw material choice and cheap, qualified, standard and continuous production. 

The obtained raw material is first placed in storages for at least 15 days and then to milling granaries depending on the 1-3 days milling plan. The stored material must be controlled in 15 day periods at most. Besides storing practices appropriate for sanitation, organic storing methods can also be implemented according to demand.


B. Cleaning and Conditioning
Cleaning process plays a highly important role in hygiene and sanitation in addition to the protection of the mill during the final product and processing stages. Whereas the dry system is preferred in environmental terms, the wet system, in other words the washing machine, is still used due to its conditioning efficiency and its ability to more effectively clean the very dirty wheat grains. The LOOP SYSTEM involved in the dry cleaning process provides for significant advantages in terms of capacity and efficiency; and mechanization and automation techniques suited to the system are applied. In cleaning, the separation or cleaning efficiency and capacity are important. In the separation process, the amount of foreign matter that can be separated, the rate of purification from ash and microbial flora are used as measurement parameters. 

In flour milling, there are two process phases that large capacity milling experts pay the most attention and believe these to be extremely hard to compensate for. First one of these is the conditioning process where the bran is separated from the endosperm and flour purity and fineness can be checked. The second one is the control of the breakage system where the actual semolina in flour is obtained in adequate amount and purity.  Thus achieved damping and washing process and the first phase of conditioning in mills where wet clearing systems are utilized. In luxury flour milling, it is widely believed that this type of washing process results better that conditioning. In second phase, depending on the hardness level of the wheat dampness is taken to the optimum grain water.

The conditioning process is the most important preparation stage that follows the cleaning stage. The resting period applications which can ensure sufficient mosaic structure with optimum water and heat treatment are the important treatment parameters. The period can be extended up to 72 hours depending on the flour quality and fineness intended by the flour sector. The requirements of the wheat types with different hardness are also taken into consideration in terms of the resting period, and conditioning silos in suitable capacities and automations are built and used. The conditioning process can be performed separately for soft and hard wheat grains; later on, blended flour is also used. In the conditioning process, while the grain water optimization is performed at a single stage in soft grains, the soaking treatment is completed in two stages for the grains with hardness level over 50%. When the conditioning processes performed after the dry cleaning process are compared with the systems with washing processes, it is known that the conditioning efficiency is achieved at around 90% in the dry system in addition to an environmentally significant amount of decrease in the waste water. In the conditioning process, the heat-treatment shortens the duration of the process. The most common conditioning treatment is the warm conditioning where the temperature does not exceed 42oC. Hot and steam conditioning methods can be implemented as well for special purposes.  

C. Creating Blended Flour
It is the process of mixing different types of conditioned wheat grains in certain amounts in consideration of the specifications of the demanded flour. The amount of protein and quality in addition to the level of hardness achieved with the types of wheat grains constitute the most important stage of blending flour. The second stage is the cost-effective production of this quality; and it should be remembered that the approximately 85% of the flour cost arises from the raw material. When determining the amounts to be blended, Pearson square technique and mass balance calculations or the programs developed based on the principle of such balance are utilized.

DEVELOPMENTS IN MILLING TECHNOLOGIES

Milling technologies brings to mind mechanization units, system creation, diagram ad automation operations. 

When we simplify the subject matter and take it to date, we can talk about milling applications starting from millstones through to completely computerized light off milling. In terms of operating mills, there is a shift towards the multipurpose milling concept that has recently started to draw attraction due to product range in the milling sector that started with specialization milling in our sector. 

Flour milling has undergone great changes till it has reached our day. Considering the historical developments as well, it is possible to summarize these with the critical titles below.

A. Changes in Power Source
The use of power started with human, animal, water and wind forces and turned into steam machines at the end of 18th century, bursty machines were invented in 19th century and it had reached its peak in 20th century by electric motors. The steam machines, bursty machines and electric machines were first used in stone mills. Still, there are companies which utilize these power sources with a central drive force system under the concept of nostalgic and organic production. However, modern milling has completely focused on electric motors.

Utilizing electric motors, mills were transferred from central drive systems to unitary drive system, one or several motors were used for each machine and thus transmission losses were eliminated and energy consumption was lowered The latest developments in electric machines have caused significant decreases in energy consumption.

Currently, the energy share is decreased at considerably low levels with respect to flour expenditures. The classical electric generation sources are widely used. Therefore, the works for renewable energy sources as an alternative do not seem feasible when investment costs and the return are considered.

B. Developments in Stone Design
Industrially, the very first developments were seen in stone mills and the first critical step was taken in increasing the milling quality. Sandstones were used in the beginning and artificial TRY_PARSEed-stones were preferred later on. The negative effects of milling under extreme pressure were eliminated by increasing the gap between the stones, the facing surfaces of the stones were threaded and thread position was implemented by placing stones back to back, the breakage and milling processes were carried to the circle and dispersed to the different areas of the milling surface from the center by the change of threading features. The next important step was the usage of milling systems, which brought significant increase in milling quality. These developments have become a very important source of knowledge and experience for the development of roller mills.

C. Transition from Single Level to Multi-Level Milling system

Multi-level milling is the multi phase size reduction process in wheat milling. It was first used in stone mills in 19th century. As seen on the left side of Figure2, single level milling systems wheat grains can be broken or reduced to flour in a single phase. In single milling system, the stone mills which operate under high pressure starch damage is experienced which increases the amylase activity in return. In addition, the flour becomes sticky in result of extreme dextrization when turned into dough making it hard to use. The bread made of this flour does not have a volume, is doughy within and black. Multi-level milling on the other hand eliminates these problems. In the multi level milling system as shown on the right side of Figure2, the stone gap is kept wider on the first level and in each milling level the gap is shrunk more, reducing the wheat to the desired fineness level gradually. This process, as seen on the picture was first implemented in stone mills and the wheat was reduced to flour in 3 to 4 stages. The multi-level milling system was first used in France at the end of 18th century, in Austria at the beginning of the 19th century and subsequently in other European countries as well. Due to the use of rollers multi level milling has gained a great functionality by the increase of milling stages and gap control; it was a great contribution with respect to the milling capacity and quality.

  

Figure2. The stone design and the multi-leveled high milling system in stone mills


The advantages and functions of multipurpose milling system can be summarized as follows:
a.    Shell endosperm separation is increased. Splitting in shell layers decreases. 
b.    Energy consumption decreases.
c.    Mechanical starch damage is decreased
d.    There are no damages caused by heating; in other words, the flour does not burn. When the temperature exceeds 55oC in milling the starch is damaged and the gluten is damaged when the temperature exceeds 70oC. 
e.    The milling capacity and quality are higher.
f.    Flour with less peak and ask content is achieved.

D. Use of Sieves:

The sieves are the second essential mechanization component following the mills in the flour milling. The sieving process is a purification treatment. The cylindrical sieves were first used in England in 19th century. Before the milled material was sieved in a separate sieve and purified from the raw bran only up to 5 % and the rest was used as flour. First cylindrical, then hexagon and pulsing centrifuge type rotary sieves and finally horizontal wide brimmed rectangular and square sieve were started to be used respectively. The images of these sieves are provided in Figure3.

Figure3. Sieve systems used in flour milling

With the invention of cylinder sieves, the sieving process was integrated to the automatic system enabling continuous use. This type of sieves could get clogged with the effect of centrifugal force, leaving only 1/3 of the sieving surface usable. Later on, hexagonal sieves with higher sieving efficiency were used. With the use of these sieves, the clogging was minimized with the effect of rolling from one surface to the other during the rotation; later on, with the addition of pallet systems rotating in the opposite direction to the sieve, the clogging was completely eliminated. These sieves known as centrifuge sieves today are still used in necessary operations. 

With the invention of horizontal-table and plane-movement sieves, rectangular and square shaped sieves began to be popularly used. The first examples of these sieves are the reciprocating and left-right plane movement rectangular sieves; they can be manufactured as multi-later and multi-passage forms. There are still some mills which use these types of sieves. 

In the recent years, square-box and semicircular gyrating square plan sifters have become increasingly popular. This is the most common type of sieve that is used today. The semicircular movement applied in these sieves makes sieving an easier process by cutting the centrifugal force and collecting fine particles below and coarse particles above. The square sieves accomplish a great deal of work in a small space. They are easily replaceable due to diagram and maintenance. In terms of construction, they can be used as 30 pieces of 2-10 unit boxes located on one another. Multi-layer usage increases the sifting surface while square shaped boxes can be easily replaced. 

Today, research and development studies on sieves are continued. Studies are being conducted in relation to building lighter mechanical components with different materials, increasing durability against load and movement, facilitating assembly and disassembly, minimizing the dead spots inside the boxes and increasing the sieving surface and the service life of sifting fabrics. The important factors in the sifting efficiency of the sieves such as sifting speed depending on the passage load and fineness, dash distance, durability and sifting surface openness of sieve fabrics should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, utilization opportunities depending on the diagram flow is still being researched. 

Today, certain circular-table sieves are introduced to the market instead of the square sieves; these machines which are free from dead spots practically have no loss of surface. There are studies on the usage of different stroke and vibration mechanisms in addition to quite different sifting materials and tapotement in order to increase the sifting efficiency and minimize the clogging.  

E. Use of Rolls in Milling

Rollers were first used in Hungary in 1860. In 1885, these were brought in Turkey and used in Istanbul.

Use of rolls in milling;
a.    increase capacity and quality in milling, 
b.    decrease the energy consumption and 
c.    increase milling effectiveness and efficiency since rolls are suitable for threading, work at much higher speeds, and they are more suited for automation. 

Figure 4 shortly and diagrammatically summarizes the roll technology, the positioning of the ball inside the roll and the threading images. 

Figure4. Milling Roll and Position, Roll Stand, Ball Position and Threading

While roll balls minimize the friction surface and energy consumption by means of providing for a continuous linear milling movement, they also have a superficial milling effect in the form of the linear derivative. These made it possible to remarkably increase the rotation speed of the rolls which in turn increased the milling capacity. Different speed differentials depending on the diagram position make it possible to balance the million disruption and friction effect. Today, the speed limit can be increased up to 800 rev/min with effective cooling whereas starch damage cannot be prevented at higher speeds. 

Steel roll balls coated with special materials being more durable than stone, easily adjustable roll and ball distance, ability to perform more accurate and different threading depending of different milling stages and ability to easily use different groove position have all provided important benefits. Rolls facilitated multi-level milling applications and made great contributions in the milling quality by increasing shell-endosperm separation and flour efficiency and quality. Different techniques and specifications of threading applied to roll balls dissolve or scrape the endosperm particles trapped in the pod cavity of the grain provided for an increase in flour efficiency. All of these benefits facilitate milling in addition to decreasing the energy consumption per unit flour production. 

As of today, there is not an invention yet to replace the milling rolls. Even though there are certain laboratory results mentioned, these results seem to have challenges in terms of industrialization and commercialization. 

R&D studies are focused on lighter and more effective rolls with lower vibration and noise, minimized friction and heating, no changes in dimension when being operated, durable bearing, minimized movable components, lower dead spots, higher cooling efficiency, suitable for hygiene and sanitation and lower milling surface. Ease of assembly and disassembly, ease of ball replacement, easy maintenance and repair are also at the center of studies in addition to long service life. 

F. The Usage of Semolina Purifiers

These are the machines which classify the obtained semolina in the breakage system and separate the flying fine bran by air flow. Removing the contamination sources from the environment which can be as fine as to mix into the flour, semolina purifiers help the peak and the flour ash to fall off the flour. Semolina purifiers were first used in America in the beginning of the 20th century. It was considered a must for the production of white luxury flour and therefore it rapidly spreaded over America and Europe. Today, parallel to the developments in the milling technology, purer semolina can be obtained depending on the diagram implementations which can provide effective cleaning, effective conditioning and optimum breakage as well as effective control processes. Semolina purifiers are not that easy to manage as well. Therefore, the importance of the semolina purifiers is secondary. They might not be preferred especially in bread and higher performance flour diagrams. They are used as the main components of luxury flour and semolina milling. 

As for the areas which demand semolina purifiers studies are continuing for the invention of less space occupying, highly productive machines that are made of light materials and are easy to assemble and disassemble as well as the innovations such as increase of the capacity and efficacy and efficient and decreased air use.


G. Conveying Systems
Horizontal and vertical conveying systems in flour milling function as starting point of mechanical automation. These applications gave the first chance of automation in manufacturing to the flour milling. Bucket and worm conveyors are still used in cleaning and conditioning systems depending on the location. Negative and positive pressure pneumatic conveyors are becoming more popular today in spite of their higher energy consumption. Pneumatic conveyors help the flour get conditioned more quickly as a result of contact with air. If engineering practices are observed and assembly errors are not made, these systems can provide for a highly efficient conveying. 

H. Flour Blend, Doping Systems and Packaging
Generally we live in a world where blending is performed in wheat level. It should be noted that the most suitable blending for the most efficient and multipurpose milling can be realized with flour blending.

Doping is the process of completing the shortages in the flour using the “feeders”. One must always abstain from extremes and never neglect international codexes. 

Packaging is developed for very high capacity packaging systems. The most suitable packaging system is achieved by the paper-based materials which prevent condensation.


DEVELOPMENTS IN AUTOMATION AND COMPUTERIZATION
This field represents the last circle of the industrialization process. An industry not automated and not computerized cannot survive the merciless competition. Saving on workforce, effective mechanization and process control, energy saving, process standardization and elimination of personnel errors also provide for added value. 

To summarize the technological evolution of the milling process, manual milling is followed by mechanical, electromechanical, PC and PLC controlled automation processes. 

Power supplies, production machines, the amount and quality of the milled materials should be controlled on a constant basis to ensure a productive milling in flour milling. Manual performances of these require employment of higher number of personnel. Recently, computerized automation operations have started to be adopted in production control operations in mills so as to facilitate the controlling operations and increase the quality and efficiency. This can increase productivity by around 30%.  

In the first automation operations, electromechanical circuit breakers controlled via wall boxes were used. Electromechanical relay control systems are employed in the control of machines and the mechanical systems. These types of systems are also known as low-automation systems. The next level of this system is the fixed-cable electronics integration systems. These systems are used to command the contactors located on the machines by means of a central board in order to guide and manage the whole mill from the switchboard. 

Later on, flour mills were computerized; large control boards were squeezed into a computer screen with the use of PC (programmable controller) and the use of heavily cabled transmission systems was ended. With PC control, the mill can be operated or stopped depending on various operation scenarios in line with a designated program. This way, stock control, start-stop, malfunction alarm, energy consumption, process control, flow and quality control, production inventory, milling value, machine and sub-process performance can be controlled. 

Today, “light off” mills that can regulate the production parameters depending of the changing conditions by means of utilizing PLC systems have been designed. These mills are built in completely closed systems and completely controlled via a monitor outside the mill. These systems need neither a washer not a roller. A decision center is established in PLC systems; the logic unit decides on a certain program according to the data calculated by the sensors received at the computer from the environment or the milling machines and communicates this decision as a command to the machines and directs the operation according to the changing data. The mill should be categorized into sub-disciplines such as cleaning, conditioning, blending, milling control, flour blend and packaging and it should also be automated and programmed in order for this system to be implemented. In the existing processing technology, it is possible to automate the conditioning process together with the milling process.

J. Energy Savings
Energy consumption constitutes 6.0 to 8.0% of the flour milling expenditure. The most important components of the energy savings can be summarized as follows:
• Appropriate electrification system must be selected and actively controlled (lighting, heating, etc.).
• The engine (power, technology gap) should be correctly chosen.
• Automation and computer control (process, power, performance, and malfunction) must be provided.
• Periodic analysis of energy consumption in the company as well as the care of the mechanization units and systems should be conducted regularly.
• High cleaning and milling capacity should be preferred.
• The diagrams should be created considering fewer levels, level height and carrying distance.
• The carrier should be correctly chosen (with bucket, auger, pneumatic selection "positive-negative"). In pneumatic systems low horizontal transfer and bracket use should be avoided.
• Correct diagram (cleaning, conditioning, grinding, pneumatic) should be done and air should be used optimally (aspiration, SAS, pneumatic).
• The selection of appropriate mechanization is a very important goal.
• High machine performance and technology (low energy, vibration, noise) is required.
• The absence of excess capacity and bottlenecks in mechanization (appropriate unit flow rate) must be taken into account.
• LOOP system should be implemented for cleaning.
• Pretempering should be applied in mail.
• (FIFO) system should be implemented continuously in conditioning.
• Warm conditioning and use of heat waste must be provided.
• Effective control and mill balance (mechanization, load, flow quantity and quality, sanitation) should be provided.
• Air and pressure stabilization (using heat and moisture waste, positive pressure) should be provided.

THE RESULT AND THE RECOMMENDATIONS

As a result, parallel to the increase of variety in demands the expertise milling must be switched to multipurpose milling.  The global criteria and international demands should be considered in each new planning. Laboratories must be used for raw material supplies and credibility, quality as well as standardization should be consistent. It should be noted that quality and profitability are dependant on the raw materials.

It should not be forgotten that flour milling technology cannot go beyond rollers and square sieves.  All the innovation work and the Research and Development projects focus on these and the functionality, ergonomic and the aesthetic features of their supportive components’.

Mechanization technologies are important both for the machine and the system they create. These production activities must handle the issues of gaining time and space, ease of control, aesthetics and ergonomics, easy and lower maintenance and repair rates, more quite and less vibrant, fewer moving parts, suitability for automation and international criteria of safety very carefully.

Diagram refers to the designing of the machines and systems for providing the best results for the purpose. This profession has ecoles but no schools or books. As a result, each mill has an independent diagram. Diagrams are successful when they are produced in the result of a very disciplined work.

Diagram refers to the designing of the machines and systems for providing the best results for the purpose. This profession has ecoles but no schools or books. As a result, each mill has an independent diagram. Diagrams are successful when they are produced in the result of a very disciplined work.

Implementations of automation and computerization are critical for lowering the costs, sustaining the quality and protecting the market. 

The energy saving comes in the third place after raw material and personnel in flour milling. The diagram consists of interventions which include assembly, mechanization, electrification, automation and administration disciplines.

The most urgent demand of new technologies is the qualified personnel supply. In case the qualified personnel i.e. human factor is not provided all the developments and recommendations will seize to reach their targets. The essential support must be provided for the education.